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Many of his opponents returned to France and became members of the National Assembly, Napoleon III is best known today for his grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. He launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Lyon, Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, greatly expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world.

He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, Napoleon III negotiated the Cobden—Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with Frances other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize, womens education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools.

In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War and his regime assisted Italian unification and, in doing so, annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France, at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy.

Napoleon doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific, on the other hand, his armys intervention in Mexico which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection ended in failure. Beginning in , Napoleon had to face the power of Prussia. His presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleons wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by then infertile.

Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen and they had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periods. He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic and he was ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra during his term as president.

Thiers was a key figure in the July Revolution of , which overthrew the Bourbon monarchy, and the French Revolution of , which established the Second French Republic. He served as a minister in , and , dedicated the Arc de Triomphe. He was first a supporter, then an opponent of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. When Napoleon III seized power, Thiers was arrested and briefly expelled from France and he then returned and became an opponent of the government.

Following the defeat of France in the Franco-German War, which Thiers opposed, he was elected executive of the new French government. When the Paris Commune seized power in March , Thiers gave the orders to the army for its suppression, at the age of seventy-four, he was named President of the Republic by the French National Assembly in August His chief accomplishment as president was to achieve the departure of German soldiers from most of French territory two years ahead of schedule.

Opposed by the monarchists in the French assembly and the wing of the Republicans, he resigned on 24 May He was also a literary figure, the author of a very successful ten-volume history of the French Revolution.

In he was elected the second-youngest member ever of the Académie Française, Adolphe Thiers was born on 15 April , during the rule of the Directorate. His father was a businessman and occasional government official under Napoleon and his father abandoned Adolphe and his mother shortly after he was born. His mother had little money, but Thiers was able to receive an education thanks to financial aid from an aunt.

He won admission to a lycée of Marseille through a competitive examination, while studying at the faculty of law he began his lifelong friendship with François Mignet. They both were admitted to the bar in , and Thiers made a living as a lawyer for three years.

He showed a strong interest in literature, and won a prize of five hundred francs for an essay on the marquis de Vauvenargues. Nonetheless, he was unhappy with his life in Aix and he wrote to his friend Teulon, I am without fortune, without status, and without any hope of having either here. Primo ministro — A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss members of the cabinet.

In most systems, the minister is the presiding member. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the minister is the presiding and actual head of government. In such systems, the head of state or the head of states official representative usually holds a ceremonial position.

The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown. The first actual usage of the prime minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu when in he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France. Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers, the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole.

Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century, the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. The power of ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch.

Although managing the parliament was among the skills of holding high office. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse, Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour.

Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful, late in Annes reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and St John shared power. The monarch could no longer any law or impose any tax without its permission. It is at point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in , George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government.

Francia — France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. France spans , square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until , France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation.

During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe.

Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in Following liberation in , a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic.

France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state.

It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. As a cavalry officer he saw service in Algeria. Between January and November , Montauban commanded the Division of Oran in western Algeria, in he was sent to fight in the Crimea. He was appointed in to a command at home, and his conduct of the operations did not escape criticism, but in he received from Napoleon III, the title of comte de Palikao, he had already been made a senator.

The allegation that he had acquired a vast fortune by the plunder of the Old Summer Palace in Peking seems to have been without foundation. In he was appointed to the command of the IV. He conceived the idea of sending the Army of Châlons to raise the blockade of Metz, the scheme depended on a precision and rapidity of which the Army of Châlons was no longer capable, and ended with the disaster of Sedan. Before a decision was made, the chamber was invaded by the mob, in he appeared before the parliamentary commission of inquiry, and in the same year established Un Ministre de la guerre de vingt-quatre jours.

Charles Cousin-Montauban, Souvenirs -- extracts concerning the China campaign of and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Dufaure was born at Saujon, Charente-Maritime, and began his career as an advocate at Bordeaux and he abandoned law for politics and, in , was elected deputy.

In , he became minister of works in the ministry of Jean-de-Dieu Soult. Losing office in , Dufaure became one of the leaders of the Opposition, on 13 October, he became minister of the interior under Louis-Eugène Cavaignac, but retired on the latters defeat in the presidential election.

In , he became a member of the Assembly, Dufaure became the minister of justice as chief of the party of the left-centre, and his tenure of office was distinguished by the passage of the jury-law. In , he fell with Thiers, but in resumed his former post under Louis Buffet, whom he succeeded on 9 March , in the same year, he was elected a life senator. On 12 December, he withdrew from the ministry owing to the attacks of the republicans of the left in the chamber, after the conservatives defeat on 16 May, he returned to power on 24 December See G Picot, M.

Tours — Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France. In , the city of Tours had , inhabitants, Tours stands on the lower reaches of the River Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. The surrounding district, the province of Touraine, is known for its wines, for the alleged perfection of its local spoken French.

The city is also the end-point of the annual Paris—Tours cycle race, in Gallic times the city was important as a crossing point of the Loire. Becoming part of the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD, the name evolved in the 4th century when the original Gallic name, Turones, became first Civitas Turonum then Tours. It was at time that the amphitheatre of Tours, one of the five largest amphitheatres of the Empire, was built.

Tours became the metropolis of the Roman province of Lugdunum towards —, dominating the Loire Valley, Maine, one of the outstanding figures of the history of the city was Saint Martin, second bishop who shared his coat with a naked beggar in Amiens.

This incident and the importance of Martin in the medieval Christian West made Tours, and its position on the route of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, a major centre during the Middle Ages. In the 6th century Gregory of Tours, author of the Ten Books of History, in the 9th century, Tours was at the heart of the Carolingian Rebirth, in particular because of Alcuin abbot of Marmoutier. The outcome was defeat for the Muslims, preventing France from Islamic conquest, in , Tours repulsed the first attack of the Viking chief Hasting.

In , the Vikings settled at the mouths of the Seine, still led by Hasting, they went up the Loire again in and sacked Angers, Tours and the abbey of Marmoutier.

During the Middle Ages, Tours consisted of two juxtaposed and competing centres, in the west, the new city structured around the Abbey of Saint Martin was freed from the control of the City during the 10th century and became Châteauneuf. This space, organized between Saint Martin and the Loire, became the centre of Tours.

Between these two centres remained Varennes, vineyards and fields, little occupied except for the Abbaye Saint-Julien established on the banks of the Loire, the two centres were linked during the 14th century.

Tours became the capital of the county of Tours or Touraine and it was the capital of France at the time of Louis XI, who had settled in the castle of Montils, Tours and Touraine remained until the 16th century a permanent residence of the kings and court. The rebirth gave Tours and Touraine many private mansions and castles and it is also at the time of Louis XI that the silk industry was introduced — despite difficulties, the industry still survives to this day.

Generale — A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines. The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction.

Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers.

There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe. It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command.

The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank. Many countries actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia, mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major, confusion arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major.

Originally the serjeant major was, exclusively, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general, the distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer.

Serjeant was eventually dropped from both titles, creating the modern rank titles. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Altri progetti Wikisource Wikimedia Commons. Estratto da " https: Therefore, the likelihood of a cohabitation is lower, among the powers of the government, The president promulgates laws 2.

Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen and they had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periods 3. Nonetheless, he was unhappy with his life in Aix and he wrote to his friend Teulon, I am without fortune, without status, and without any hope of having either here 4.

A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in , George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government 5.

At this time, the Catholics returned to power in Angers, the Massacre of Saint-Barthelemy was not repeated at Tours 9.

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There are exactly 45, elected officials, including 33, mayors, spending and financing of campaigns and political parties are highly regulated. Advertising on TV is forbidden but official time is given to candidates on public TV, an independent agency regulates election and party financing.

After the president is elected, he or she goes through an investiture ceremony called a passation des pouvoirs. The French Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system, unlike many other European presidents, the French President is quite powerful.

When the majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the president, when the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the President can take a more active role and may, in effect, direct government policy. The prime minister is then the choice of the President. This device has been used in recent years by François Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac, since , the mandate of the president and the Assembly are both 5 years and the two elections are close to each other.

Therefore, the likelihood of a cohabitation is lower, among the powers of the government, The president promulgates laws. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I and he was the first President of France to be elected by a direct popular vote. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution, during the first years of the Empire, Napoleons government imposed censorship and harsh repressive measures against his opponents.

Some six thousand were imprisoned or sent to penal colonies until , thousands more went into voluntary exile abroad, including Victor Hugo. From onwards, he relaxed government censorship, and his came to be known as the Liberal Empire. Many of his opponents returned to France and became members of the National Assembly, Napoleon III is best known today for his grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann.

He launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Lyon, Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, greatly expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world. He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, Napoleon III negotiated the Cobden—Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with Frances other European trading partners.

Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize, womens education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism.

In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War and his regime assisted Italian unification and, in doing so, annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France, at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy.

Napoleon doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific, on the other hand, his armys intervention in Mexico which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection ended in failure. Beginning in , Napoleon had to face the power of Prussia. His presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte.

His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleons wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by then infertile. Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen and they had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periods.

He was the second elected President of France, and the first President of the French Third Republic and he was ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra during his term as president. Thiers was a key figure in the July Revolution of , which overthrew the Bourbon monarchy, and the French Revolution of , which established the Second French Republic. He served as a minister in , and , dedicated the Arc de Triomphe.

He was first a supporter, then an opponent of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. When Napoleon III seized power, Thiers was arrested and briefly expelled from France and he then returned and became an opponent of the government. Following the defeat of France in the Franco-German War, which Thiers opposed, he was elected executive of the new French government.

When the Paris Commune seized power in March , Thiers gave the orders to the army for its suppression, at the age of seventy-four, he was named President of the Republic by the French National Assembly in August His chief accomplishment as president was to achieve the departure of German soldiers from most of French territory two years ahead of schedule.

Opposed by the monarchists in the French assembly and the wing of the Republicans, he resigned on 24 May He was also a literary figure, the author of a very successful ten-volume history of the French Revolution. In he was elected the second-youngest member ever of the Académie Française, Adolphe Thiers was born on 15 April , during the rule of the Directorate.

His father was a businessman and occasional government official under Napoleon and his father abandoned Adolphe and his mother shortly after he was born.

His mother had little money, but Thiers was able to receive an education thanks to financial aid from an aunt. He won admission to a lycée of Marseille through a competitive examination, while studying at the faculty of law he began his lifelong friendship with François Mignet.

They both were admitted to the bar in , and Thiers made a living as a lawyer for three years. He showed a strong interest in literature, and won a prize of five hundred francs for an essay on the marquis de Vauvenargues.

Nonetheless, he was unhappy with his life in Aix and he wrote to his friend Teulon, I am without fortune, without status, and without any hope of having either here. Primo ministro — A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss members of the cabinet. In most systems, the minister is the presiding member. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the minister is the presiding and actual head of government. In such systems, the head of state or the head of states official representative usually holds a ceremonial position.

The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown. The first actual usage of the prime minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu when in he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France.

Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers, the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole. Over time, however, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century, the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government.

The power of ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the skills of holding high office.

Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse, Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful, late in Annes reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and St John shared power.

The monarch could no longer any law or impose any tax without its permission. It is at point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge.

A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in , George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government.

Francia — France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. France spans , square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until , France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation.

During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in Following liberation in , a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in and remains to this day.

Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.

In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone.

As a cavalry officer he saw service in Algeria. Between January and November , Montauban commanded the Division of Oran in western Algeria, in he was sent to fight in the Crimea.

He was appointed in to a command at home, and his conduct of the operations did not escape criticism, but in he received from Napoleon III, the title of comte de Palikao, he had already been made a senator. The allegation that he had acquired a vast fortune by the plunder of the Old Summer Palace in Peking seems to have been without foundation.

In he was appointed to the command of the IV. He conceived the idea of sending the Army of Châlons to raise the blockade of Metz, the scheme depended on a precision and rapidity of which the Army of Châlons was no longer capable, and ended with the disaster of Sedan. Before a decision was made, the chamber was invaded by the mob, in he appeared before the parliamentary commission of inquiry, and in the same year established Un Ministre de la guerre de vingt-quatre jours.

Charles Cousin-Montauban, Souvenirs -- extracts concerning the China campaign of and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed.

Dufaure was born at Saujon, Charente-Maritime, and began his career as an advocate at Bordeaux and he abandoned law for politics and, in , was elected deputy. In , he became minister of works in the ministry of Jean-de-Dieu Soult. Losing office in , Dufaure became one of the leaders of the Opposition, on 13 October, he became minister of the interior under Louis-Eugène Cavaignac, but retired on the latters defeat in the presidential election.

In , he became a member of the Assembly, Dufaure became the minister of justice as chief of the party of the left-centre, and his tenure of office was distinguished by the passage of the jury-law. In , he fell with Thiers, but in resumed his former post under Louis Buffet, whom he succeeded on 9 March , in the same year, he was elected a life senator.

On 12 December, he withdrew from the ministry owing to the attacks of the republicans of the left in the chamber, after the conservatives defeat on 16 May, he returned to power on 24 December See G Picot, M.

Tours — Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France. In , the city of Tours had , inhabitants, Tours stands on the lower reaches of the River Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. The surrounding district, the province of Touraine, is known for its wines, for the alleged perfection of its local spoken French. The city is also the end-point of the annual Paris—Tours cycle race, in Gallic times the city was important as a crossing point of the Loire.

Becoming part of the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD, the name evolved in the 4th century when the original Gallic name, Turones, became first Civitas Turonum then Tours. It was at time that the amphitheatre of Tours, one of the five largest amphitheatres of the Empire, was built. Tours became the metropolis of the Roman province of Lugdunum towards —, dominating the Loire Valley, Maine, one of the outstanding figures of the history of the city was Saint Martin, second bishop who shared his coat with a naked beggar in Amiens.

This incident and the importance of Martin in the medieval Christian West made Tours, and its position on the route of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, a major centre during the Middle Ages. In the 6th century Gregory of Tours, author of the Ten Books of History, in the 9th century, Tours was at the heart of the Carolingian Rebirth, in particular because of Alcuin abbot of Marmoutier.

The outcome was defeat for the Muslims, preventing France from Islamic conquest, in , Tours repulsed the first attack of the Viking chief Hasting. In , the Vikings settled at the mouths of the Seine, still led by Hasting, they went up the Loire again in and sacked Angers, Tours and the abbey of Marmoutier.

During the Middle Ages, Tours consisted of two juxtaposed and competing centres, in the west, the new city structured around the Abbey of Saint Martin was freed from the control of the City during the 10th century and became Châteauneuf.

This space, organized between Saint Martin and the Loire, became the centre of Tours. Between these two centres remained Varennes, vineyards and fields, little occupied except for the Abbaye Saint-Julien established on the banks of the Loire, the two centres were linked during the 14th century. Tours became the capital of the county of Tours or Touraine and it was the capital of France at the time of Louis XI, who had settled in the castle of Montils, Tours and Touraine remained until the 16th century a permanent residence of the kings and court.

The rebirth gave Tours and Touraine many private mansions and castles and it is also at the time of Louis XI that the silk industry was introduced — despite difficulties, the industry still survives to this day. Generale — A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines.

The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction.

Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure.

Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers. There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe. It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command.

The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank.

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